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Cystic echinococcosis in cattle dairy farms: spatial distribution and epidemiological dynamics

Antonio Scala, Antonio Bosco, Anna Paola Pipia, Claudia Tamponi, Vincenzo Musella, Nicola Costanzo, Francesco Testoni, Antonio Montisci, Giovanni Mocci, Alessandro Longhi, Laura Tilocca, Laura Rinaldi, Giuseppe Cringoli, Antonio Varcasia
  • Antonio Scala
    Inter-University Center for Research in Parasitology, Naples; Laboratory of Parasitology, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy
  • Antonio Bosco
    Inter-University Center for Research in Parasitology, Naples; Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy
  • Anna Paola Pipia
    Inter-University Center for Research in Parasitology, Naples; Laboratory of Parasitology, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy
  • Claudia Tamponi
    Inter-University Center for Research in Parasitology, Naples; Laboratory of Parasitology, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy
  • Vincenzo Musella
    Inter-University Center for Research in Parasitology, Naples; Department of Health Sciences, Magna Græcia University, Catanzaro, Italy
  • Nicola Costanzo
    Department of Health Sciences, Magna Græcia University, Catanzaro, Italy
  • Francesco Testoni
    Laboratory of Parasitology, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy
  • Antonio Montisci
    Local Health Unit n.5, Oristano, Italy
  • Giovanni Mocci
    Local Health Unit n.5, Oristano, Italy
  • Alessandro Longhi
    Local Health Unit n.5, Oristano, Italy
  • Laura Tilocca
    Private veterinary practitioner, Sassari, Italy
  • Laura Rinaldi
    Inter-University Center for Research in Parasitology, Naples; Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy | lrinaldi@unina.it
  • Giuseppe Cringoli
    Inter-University Center for Research in Parasitology, Naples; Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy
  • Antonio Varcasia
    Inter-University Center for Research in Parasitology, Naples; Laboratory of Parasitology, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy

Abstract

A study monitoring cystic echinococcosis (CE) in adult dairy cattle from intensive livestock farms located in the municipality of Arborea (Sardinia, Italy) was carried out between 2012 and 2015. A retrospective study of veterinary reporting forms of post-mortem inspections in 10 different Italian slaughterhouses was also performed. In addition, data on viability and molecular characterisation of hydatid cysts removed from parasitised organs in cattle was carried out. A geographical information system (GIS) with data layers of the study area and the geo-referenced points of 160 cattle farms was constructed. CE was found in 21.9% (35/160) of the surveyed farms. The retrospective study revealed that 0.05% (13/23,656) of adult slaughtered animals (over one year of age) from Arborea had tested positive to CE. The results stratified per year showed the following CE prevalences: 0.09% (5/5673) in 2012; 0.02% (1/5682) in 2013; 0.08% (5/6261) in 2014; and 0.03% (2/6040) in 2015 (χ2 with 3 degrees of freedom=3.81; P=0.282). The E. granulosus sensu stricto (formerly called G1 or sheep strain) was detected in all cysts subjected to molecular analysis. The GIS analysis showed that CE is fairly resilient in the Arborea territory where most of cattle farms are located, while a small cluster of cases was found located in the southeastern part of Arborea, close to districts where sheep farms are situated. The present survey reports the presence of CE in Sardinian dairy cattle intensive farms and suggests that the parasitic pressure of CE in the island continues to be very strong.

Keywords

Cystic echinococcosis; Intensive farming; Dairy cattle; Geographical information systems; Sardinia

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Submitted: 2017-02-28 11:36:09
Published: 2017-05-29 12:31:23
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Copyright (c) 2017 A. Scala, A. Varcasia, A.P. Pipia, C. Tamponi, V. Musella, N. Costanzo, F. Testoni, A. Montisci, G. Mocci, A. Longhi, L. Tilocca, L. Rinaldi, G. Cringoli

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