Geospatial Health https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh <p><strong>Geospatial Health</strong> is the official journal of the International Society of Geospatial Health (<a href="http://www.gnosisgis.org/">www.GnosisGIS.org</a>).</p> <p>The journal was founded in 2006 at the University of Naples Federico II by Giuseppe Cringoli, John B. Malone, Robert Bergquist and Laura Rinaldi. The focus of the journal is on all aspects of the application of geographical information systems, remote sensing, global positioning systems, spatial statistics and other geospatial tools in human and veterinary health. The journal publishes two issues per year.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Geospatial Health 1827-1987 <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> Publish or perish: Need for bibliometric and access reform https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/744 <p>Not available.</p> Robert Bergquist Laura Rinaldi Giuseppe Cringoli ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.744 Mapping the potential distribution of the schistosomiasis intermediate host Biomphalaria straminea in China https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/723 <p><em>Biomphalaria straminea</em> is native to Brazil but has established a population in Guangdong Province, China. Its potential of expanding and transmitting <em>Schistosoma mansoni</em> is of great concern. We seek to map <em>S. mansoni</em> transmission potential by predicting ecological dimensions and potential distributions of <em>B. straminea</em> using state-of-the-art ecological niche model approaches. Two environmental datasets were selected to fit individual and ensemble niche models, together with the evaluation of niche conservatism during <em>B. straminea</em> invasion in China. A small area is still occupied by the introduced population compared to that in Brazil. A vast space with suitable climate remains unfilled and might be available to <em>B. straminea</em>. Contrasting results of niche conservatism evaluation were attained based on the two environmental datasets. The coastal areas in southern China, together with south-western Yunnan and southern Hainan and Taiwan were consistent supported by multiple model approaches, showing high climate suitability for <em>B. straminea</em>. Attention should be paid to the possibility of <em>S. mansoni</em> epidemic in these identified areas, as high pressure due to propagation and future climate change may further complicate conditions. Our results call for rigorous monitoring and supervising along these areas in China.</p> Jingyu Fan Xuejiao Yuan Menglin Wang Gengping Zhu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.723 Development of a hexagonal, mesh-based distribution method for community health centres https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/648 <p>Community health centres (CHCs) are the <em>health gatekeepers</em> of the local population. Location and numbers of the CHCs affect fairness and effectiveness with regard to access to primary health care. In the past, the distribution of the CHCs was solely empiric-based. The goal of this study was to devise a method for CHC distribution based on the principle of improving equity as well as ensuring efficiency. We tested the effectiveness and operability of the method through a process of revision and simulation using Guangdong Province, China as sample district. A methodology based on literature review and expert consultation was repeatedly applied until an ideal result had been reached. A hexagonal, mesh-based method was developed and used to find a solution where the CHCs could be distributed where their location would be the most needed and total number suitable. Testing the effectiveness of the proposed plan, we found the proportion of area covered to be 52.8% and the proportion of the population covered 80.7%, which is 15.4% and 14.7%, respectively, better than before. It was concluded that the hexagonal mesh-based, distribution method can effectively define the location as well as the number or required CHCs, not only improving the accessibility for residents to primary health care services but also maximizing cost-effectiveness. Management of the city by grid is a new idea in urban management, which improves rationality of planning and also may be applied for many different purposes in addition to CHC localization.</p> Yinan Zhou Ge Bai Li Luo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.648 Bayesian zero-inflated spatio-temporal modelling of scrub typhus data in Korea, 2010-2014 https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/665 <p>Scrub typhus, a bacterial, febrile disease commonly occurring in the autumn, can easily be cured if diagnosed early. However, it can develop serious complications and even lead to death. For this reason, it is an important issue to find the risk factors and thus be able to prevent outbreaks. We analyzed the monthly scrub typhus data over the entire areas of South Korea from 2010 through 2014. A 2-stage hierarchical framework was considered since weather data are covariates and the scrub typhus data have different spatial resolutions. At the first stage, we obtained the administrative-level estimates for weather data using a spatial model; in the second, we applied a Bayesian zero-inflated spatio-temporal model since the scrub typhus data include excess zero counts. We found that the zero-inflated model considering the spatio-temporal interaction terms improves fitting and prediction performance. This study found that low humidity and a high proportion of elderly people are significantly associated with scrub typhus incidence.</p> Dayun Kang Jungsoon Choi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.665 Spatial modelling and mapping of teen birth rates in Taiwan in the period 1995-2010 https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/700 <p>Geographical variations in teen birth rates (TBR) still persist despite controlling for contextual factors. The aim of this research was to identify spatial patterns of TBR in Taiwan and to examine spatial relationships among different contextual factors. Using townships as the unit of analysis (<em>N</em>=359), this research used social and demographic variables for the years 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010 and conducted spatial modelling of TBR. Geographical maps of TBR were presented, and Local Indicator of Spatial Autocorrelations was used to identify TBR clustering. Comparisons were made between ordinary least-squares models and spatial lag models, in which township-level TBRs were regressed on other township-level contextual characteristics. Our study found that townships with a high TBR were mostly in eastern, central and some southern regions of Taiwan, while townships with a low TBR were in the vicinity of metropolitan areas. The significant spatial lag indicated that townships would have a higher expected prevalence rate if adjacent townships have had higher rates. Results also indicated that the percentage of aborigines and the percentage of college-educated people were consistently associated with TBR over the years. Interventions aimed at reducing TBR in Taiwan should consider the presence of spatial correlations and should incorporate neighbouring townships.</p> Ying-Chih Chuang Ting-Wu Chuang Hsing Jasming Chao Kuo-Chien Tseng Kun-Yang Chuang ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.700 Spatial analysis of asbestos exposure and occupational health care in Poland during the period 2004-2013 https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/689 <p>Asbestos is carcinogenic to humans and exposure to this substance can cause a wide range of diseases. In Poland 1997, a statutory ban was introduced on the production, use and marketing of products containing asbestos. The National Programme for Asbestos Abatement for 2009-2032 includes scheduled activities considering asbestos exposure assessment and health protection. As there are several data sources for asbestos exposure in Poland, which are not linked, the aim of this study was to gather and order them developing a PostgreSQL database, an open-source, objectrelational system. The data gathered combines the following information: the quantity of asbestos-cement products in use, details of asbestos manufacturing plants, the results of the measurements of asbestos fibre concentrations in the air and cases of asbestos-related diseases. The relational database was then used to develop a spatial analysis of asbestos monitoring and exposure in Poland to demonstrate the current state of realisation of the National Asbestos Abatement Programme in the country for 2009-2032 with the use of geoinformation techniques. The use of a database on health aspects of occupational and environmental asbestos exposure was also proposed in<em> Asbestos, Asbestosis, and Cancer: Helsinki Criteria update 2014.</em></p> Małgorzata Krówczyńska Ewa Wilk ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.689 Comparing potential spatial access with self-reported travel times and cost analysis to haemodialysis facilities in North-eastern Iran https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/703 <p>End-stage renal disease patients regularly need haemodialysis three times a week. Their poor access to haemodialysis facilities is significantly associated with a high mortality rate. The present cross-sectional study aimed to measure the potential spatial access to dialysis services at a small area level (census tract level) in North Khorasan Province, Iran. The patients were interviewed to obtain their travel information. The two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method was used to measure the spatial accessibility of patients to the dialysis centres. The capacity of the dialysis centre was defined as the number of active dialysis facilities in each centre and the haemodialysis patients in each area were considered as the users of dialysis services. The travel cost from each patient’s residence to the haemodialysis facilities was visualized by the Kriging interpolation algorithm in the study area. Spatial accessibility to the dialysis centre was poor in the northern part of the study area. Fortunately, there were not many haemodialysis patients in that area. Patients’ travel costs were high in the northern areas compared to the rest of study area. We observed a statistically significant reverse correlation between the self-reported travel time and computed spatial accessibility (-0.570, P value &lt;0.01, two-tailed spearman test). This study supports the notion that the 2SFCA method could be associated with revealed access time to dialysis facilities, especially in low traffic and in flat areas such as northern Khorasan. The mapping of patients’ distribution and interpolated travel cost to the haemodialysis facilities could help policymakers to allocate health resources to the areas where the need is greater.</p> Behzad Kiani Nasser Bagheri Ahmad Tara Benyamin Hoseini Soheil Hashtarkhani Mahmood Tara ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.703 Operational satellite-based temporal modelling of Aedes population in Argentina https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/734 <p><em>Aedes aegypti</em> is a vector for Chikungunya, Dengue and Zika viruses in Latin America and is therefore a large public health problem for the region. For this reason, several inter-institutional and multidisciplinary efforts have been made to support vector control actions through the use of geospatial technologies. This study presents the development of an operational system for the application of free access to remotely sensed products capable of assessing the oviposition activity of <em>Ae. aegypti</em> in all of Argentina’s northern region with the specific aim to improve the current Argentine National Dengue risk system. Temporal modelling implemented includes remotely sensed variables like the normalized difference vegetation index, the normalized difference water index, day and night land surface temperature and precipitation data available from NASA’s tropical rainfall measuring mission and global precipitation measurement. As a training data set, four years of weekly mosquito oviposition data from four different cities in Argentina were used. A series of satellite-generated variables was built, downloading and resampling the these products both spatially and temporally. From an initial set of 41 variables chosen based on the correlation between these products and the oviposition series, a subset of 11 variables were preserved to develop temporal forecasting models of oviposition using a lineal multivariate method in the four cities. Subsequently, a general model was generated using data from the cities. Finally, in order to obtain a model that could be broadly used, an extrapolation method using the concept of <em>environmental distance</em> was developed. Although the system was oriented towards the surveillance of dengue fever, the methodology could also be applied to other relevant vector-borne diseases as well as other geographical regions in Latin America.</p> Manuel Espinosa Eliana Marina Alvarez Di Fino Marcelo Abril Mario Lanfri Maria Victoria Periago Carlos Marcelo Scavuzzo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.734 Geographical information system analysis on road accidents involving wandering dogs in the urban area of Naples https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/628 <p>In this study, the spatial distribution of road accidents involving wandering dogs on urban roads of Naples was assessed using kernel density estimation (KDE). The study included 423 dogs victim of road collisions in the period 2012-2015 collected from the medical records of Interdepartmental Centre of Veterinary Radiology, of Pathological Anatomy Service, of Veterinary Teaching Hospital, “Federico II” University of Naples, and of Veterinary Hospital Attendance of the Local Public Health Unit Napoli1. There were a significant prevalence of young male dogs and the KDE demonstrated the presence of five hotspots in five city neighbourhoods. All areas with the highest KDE were found to be peripheral zones in which wide green areas, uncultivated or cultivated, merged with built areas and crossed by large straight roads with a lot of intersections. Wandering dogs as other animals represent a mounting problem on urban roads in Italy, despite of the effort to reduce these populations. Better knowledge of this phenomenon is important with reference to taking countermeasures and improve road safety. It is also important with reference to <em>One Health</em> and the <em>Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011- 2020</em> of the United Nations.</p> Giuseppina Mennonna Carla Murino Fabiana Micieli Alessandro Costagliola Danila D'Angelo Orlando Paciello Gerardo Fatone Francesco Lamagna Luigi Navas Marina Pompameo Leonardo Meomartino ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.628 Spatial and temporal characteristics of cancer in the period from 2004 to 2013 in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/695 <p>Cancer in Jordan is a major public health problem and the second leading cause of death after heart disease. This study aimed at studying the spatial and temporal characteristics of cancer in Jordan and its 12 governorates for the period 2004-2013 to establish a baseline for future research and identification of cancer risk factors paving the way for developing a cancer control plan in the country. Numerical and graphical summaries, time-series additive seasonal decomposition, the method of least squares, and spacetime scan statistics were applied in a geographic information systems environment. Although the results indicate that the cancer incidence in Jordan is comparatively low, it is increasing over time. In the 10-year study period, a total of 44,741 cases was reported with a mean annual crude incidence rate of 68.4 cases/100,000, mean annual age-adjusted incidence rate of 111.9 cases/100,000, and a monthly rate increase of 1.2 (cases/100,000)/month. This study also revealed that the spatial and temporal characteristics of cancer vary among the governorates. Amman, which includes the capital city and hosts more than one-third of the population of the country, reported 61.0% of the total number of cases. Amman also reported the highest annual crude incidence rate (105.3 cases/100,000), the highest annual age-adjusted incidence rate (160.6 cases/100,000), and the highest rate of increase (0.7 (cases/100,000)/month) forming a high-rate cluster. Excluding the three governorates Amman, Balqa, and Ma’daba, low-rate clusters were found with regard to the remaining governorates. All governorates, except Irbid and Mafraq, showed significant rates of increase of cancer incidence. However, no clear seasonality pattern with respect to cancer incidence was discerned.</p> Salahuddin M. Jaber Jwan H. Ibbini Nawal S. Hijjawi Juhina J. Thnaibat Omar F. Nimri ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.695 Remotely identifying potential vector habitat in areas of refugee and displaced person populations due to the Syrian civil war https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/670 <p>Historically leishmaniasis is most prevalent in established urban centres but this research shows that refugees and, most significantly, internally displaced persons are now commonly in areas characterized by the presence of fly habitats potentially leading to higher prominence of <em>Leishmania</em> infection. Areas engulfed by the Syrian civil war has thus caused the dispersal of humans into previously unpopulated areas amid habitats of the sand fly <em>Phlebotomus</em> <em>papatasi</em> that hosts the parasite <em>Leishmania</em>. The addition of new places of exposure to this disease add to difficulties with respect to diagnosis as well as provision of care and treatment. We used geospatial methodology adapting it to remotely identifying and analyzing sand fly habitats with the aim of measuring how common it is. Our methodology helps avoid the issue of resolution in satellite imagery by measuring likelihood rather than strictly known locations. We followed up this information with spatial analysis identifying which civilian populations are most prone to sand fly exposure, and therefore leishmaniasis, due to their geographical situation. Our results suggest that those most likely to be exposed to <em>Leishmania</em> are internally displaced persons, those camps less likely to receive medical relief and typically having temporary residents migrating elsewhere.</p> Samuel N. Chambers Joseph A. Tabor ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.670 Examining the impact of the number of regions used in cluster detection methods: An application to childhood asthma visits to a hospital in Manitoba, Canada https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/696 <p>The level of spatial aggregation is a major concern in cluster investigations. Combining regions to protect privacy may result in a loss of power and thus, can limit the information researchers can obtain. The impact of spatial aggregation on the ability to detect clusters is examined in this study, which shows the importance of choosing the correct level of spatial aggregation in cluster investigations. We applied the circular spatial scan statistic (CSS), flexible spatial scan statistic (FSS) and Bayesian disease mapping (BYM) approaches to a dataset containing childhood asthma visits to a hospital in Manitoba, Canada, using three different levels of spatial aggregation. Specifically, we used 56, 67 and 220 regions in the analysis, respectively. It is expected that the three scenarios will yield different results and will highlight the importance of using the right level of spatial aggregation. The three methods (CSS, FSS, BYM) examined in this study performed similarly when detecting potential clusters. However, for different levels of spatial aggregation, the potential clusters identified were different. As the number of regions used in the analysis increased, the total area identified in the cluster decreased. In general, potential clusters were identified in the central and northern parts of Manitoba. Overall, it is crucial to identify the appropriate number of regions to study spatial patterns of disease as it directly affects the results and consequently the conclusions. Additional investigation through future work is needed to determine which scenario of spatial aggregation is best.</p> Mahmoud Torabi Katie Galloway ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.696 Effects of socio-economic and environmental factors on the spatial heterogeneity of dengue fever investigated at a fine scale https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/682 <p>The spatial pattern of dengue fever cases is the result of complex interactions between the virus, the host and the vector, which may be affected by environmental conditions. The largest outbreak of dengue fever in Guangzhou city, China occurred in 2014 with case numbers 2.7 times the number of cumulative cases since 1978 and a significantly non-random spatial distribution. Selecting Guangzhou City as the study area, we used scan statistics to analyze the spatial heterogeneity of dengue fever and a generalized additive model to evaluate and examine the effects of socio-economic and environmental factors on spatial heterogeneity at a fine scale. The study found that the spatial distribution of dengue fever is highly heterogeneous and various factors differ in relative importance. The junction of the central districts of Guangzhou is a high-risk area with the <em>urban village</em> and <em>urban-rural fringe zone</em> formed by urbanization as important regional factors. The low gross domestic product per capita, the high population density, the high road density were perceived as risk factors. The Asian subtropical coastal area together with the socioeconomic and environmental factors were found to be the key drivers at the fine scale explaining the high spatial heterogeneity of dengue fever in Guangzhou City.</p> Yubing Qu Xun Shi Yong Wang Rendong Li Liang Lu Qiyong Liu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.682 Assessments of residential and global positioning system activity space for food environments, body mass index and blood pressure among low-income housing residents in New York City https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/712 <p>Research has examined how the food environment affects the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many studies have focused on residential neighbourhoods, neglecting the activity spaces of individuals. The objective of this study was to investigate whether food environments in both residential and global positioning system (GPS)-defined activity space buffers are associated with body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) among low-income adults. Data came from the New York City Low Income Housing, Neighborhoods and Health Study, including BMI and BP data (n=102, age=39.3±14.1 years), and one week of GPS data. Five food environment variables around residential and GPS buffers included: fast-food restaurants, wait-service restaurants, corner stores, grocery stores, and supermarkets. We examined associations between food environments and BMI, systolic and diastolic BP, controlling for individual- and neighbourhood-level sociodemographics and population density. Within residential buffers, a higher grocery store density was associated with lower BMI (β=- 0.20 kg/m2, P&lt;0.05), and systolic and diastolic BP (β =-1.16 mm Hg; and β=-1.02 mm Hg, P&lt;0.01, respectively). In contrast, a higher supermarket density was associated with higher systolic and diastolic BP (β=1.74 mm Hg, P&lt;0.05; and β=1.68, P&lt;0.01, respectively) within residential buffers. In GPS neighbourhoods, no associations were documented. Examining how food environments are associated with CVD risk and how differences in relationships vary by buffer types have the potential to shed light on determinants of CVD risk. Further research is needed to investigate these relationships, including refined measures of spatial accessibility/exposure, considering individual’s mobility.</p> Kosuke Tamura Brian Elbel Jessica K. Athens Pasquale E. Rummo Basile Chaix Seann D. Regan Yazan A. Al-Ajlouni Dustin T. Duncan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.712 A geographical information systems-based approach to health facilities and urban traffic system in Belgrade, Serbia https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/729 <p>We studied the geospatial distribution of health facilities in Belgrade, the capital of the Republic of Serbia, in relation to the public transport system. Analyses in this research were based on advanced geographical information systems using numerical methods. We calculated accessibility to health centres as based on public transport properties accounting for the movement of citizens, as well as patients, through the city. Based on results, the city of Belgrade has a moderate connectivity. Public health centres and a group of other health centres in the central-east part of the city have a better connectivity. Also, in this paper we estimated that the average time necessary to reach health facilities on foot is 100 minutes and by public transport vehicles such as buses, trams and trolleys is 42 minutes.</p> Aleksandar Valjarević Dragana Valjarević Zorica Stanojević-Ristić Tatjana Djekić Nebojša Živić ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.729 Pleural mesothelioma in Poland: Spatial analysis of malignant mesothelioma prevalence in the period 1999-2013 https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/667 <p>Malignant mesothelioma (MM), a rare and very deadly tumour, can be due to asbestos exposure. To better understand the cause of incidence of MM, spatial autocorrelation analysis with reference to the quantity of asbestos-cement products in use and the localisation of former asbestos manufacturing plants was applied. Geostatistical analysis shows that strong spatial clustering of MM incidence (referring to the general population as well as females and males separately) during the period 1999-2013 in the administrative units of Poland (provinces and counties). Incidence hotspots were found to be concentrated primarily in southern Poland but also seen in the county of Szczecin, which stands out in local autocorrelation analysis in north-western Poland. High incidence rates were discovered, in particular with reference to counties around former plants manufacturing asbestos-containing products, mainly asbestos-cement manufacturers. The highest frequency of MM incidence rate was found in within a 55 km radius of plants in or near the towns Trzebinia, Ogrodzieniec and Szczucin in the South, where asbestos-cement products had been manufactured for close to 40 years. Areas with significantly high incidence rates were also discovered in the provinces of Śląskie, Małopolskie and Świętokrzyskie in southern Poland.</p> Małgorzata Krówczyńska Ewa Wilk Piotr Pabjanek Gabriela Olędzka ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.667 Planning and location of health care services in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia: Discussion of the constructive use of geographical information systems https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/728 <p>Geographical information systems (GIS) is used for health care planning due to the increasing availability of geo-coded health data that is moving the field towards to health information systems. The aim of this paper is to present GIS applications for planning health services in Jeddah City. The discussion is focused on three major issues: i) identifying the location of health service facilities and their distribution; ii) modelling the level of density needed for health service facilities; and iii) identifying the required levels of accessibility to these health services. The issues covered include GIS, choropleth mapping, kernel density modelling, Euclidean (straight-line) distance and drive-time distance models. These approaches are essential and considered the major spatial decision models required to support health care for decision- makers and planners in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia.</p> Abdulkader Murad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.728 Air versus water temperature of aquatic habitats in Delhi: Implications for transmission dynamics of Aedes aegypti https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/707 <p>The present study was planned to characterize the microclimate experienced by <em>Aedes</em> larvae in different breeding habitats by determining the temperature variations in water kept in containers during different months under natural conditions. The study was conducted in three municipal zones of Delhi. In each site, four types of container material (plastic, cement, iron and ceramic) were chosen for recording the water temperature in the containers. Daily air and water temperatures (mean, maximum and minimum values) recorded by HOBO and Tidbit data loggers, respectively, were compared using analysis of variance and Tukey’s honest significant difference (HSD) tests. Mean monthly temperature of water varied from 16.9 to 33.0 °C in tin containers, 17.3 to 35.6°C in plastic containers, 14.3 to 28.5°C in ceramic pots, 23.3 to 30.4°C in cemented underground tanks (UGT) and 15.8 to 35.1°C in cemented overhead tanks (OHTs). Corresponding values for the air temperature ranged from 17.7 to 36.1°C. The difference between temperature of water in the containers and air temperature was highest for ceramic pots. Daily mean, maximum and minimum temperatures recorded by different data loggers differed significantly (P&lt;0.05). When Tukey HSD test was applied for data analysis, the daily mean air temperature differed significantly from the water temperature in tin and ceramic pots as well as cemented OHTs. The temperature of water in the different breeding habitats investigated was lower than the air temperature. Moreover, actual air temperature as recorded by HOBO was higher than the temperature recorded by local weather stations. Considering the ongoing climate change, cemented UGT and earthen pots may be more productive breeding habitats for the <em>Aedes</em> mosquito in the near future, while plastic and cemented OHTs might no longer be suitable for <em>Aedes</em> breeding.</p> Gaurav Kumar Veena Pande Shweta Pasi Vijay P. Ojha Ramesh C. Dhiman ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-09 2018-11-09 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.707 Spatiotemporal mapping and detection of mortality cluster due to cardiovascular disease with Bayesian hierarchical framework using integrated nested Laplace approximation: A discussion of suitable statistic applications in Kersa, Oromia, Ethiopia https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/681 <p>Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death globally and the number one cause of death globally. Over 75% of CVD deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries. Hence, comprehensive information about the spatio-temporal distribution of mortality due to cardio vascular disease is of interest. We fitted different spatio-temporal models within Bayesian hierarchical framework allowing different space-time interaction for mortality mapping with integrated nested Laplace approximations to analyze mortality data extracted from the health and demographic surveillance system in Kersa District in Hararege, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. The result indicates that non-parametric time trends models perform better than linear models. Among proposed models, one with non-parametric trend, type II interaction and second order random walk but without unstructured time effect was found to perform best according to our experience and. simulation study. An application based on real data revealed that, mortality due to CVD increased during the study period, while administrative regions in northern and south-eastern part of the study area showed a significantly elevated risk. The study highlighted distinct spatiotemporal clusters of mortality due to CVD within the study area. The study is a preliminary assessment step in prioritizing areas for further and more comprehensive research raising questions to be addressed by detailed investigation. Underlying contributing factors need to be identified and accurately quantified.</p> Melkamu Dedefo Henry Mwambi Sileshi Fanta Nega Assefa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-12 2018-11-12 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.681 Analysis of the relationship between life expectancy and social determinants in a north-eastern region of Brazil, 2010-2017 https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/702 <p>The process of population aging is a worldwide reality becoming a global public health challenge. Although population aging is especially noticeable in more developed regions, there has also been a significant advance in the quantity of elderly people in areas with unfavourable socioeconomic indicators, and a rapid growth in countries with a low level of economic development. This article presents an analysis based on spatial autocorrelation of the relationship between life expectancy and social determinants in a north-eastern region of Brazil. An ecological study was conducted using the secondary data of social, demographic, and health indicators of elderly people collected in the Brazilian Demographic Census of the 75 municipalities of the state of Sergipe. Spatial autocorrelation was evaluated using the Moran global index and the local indicators of space association. Multiple linear regression models were used to identify the relationship between life expectancy and social determinants. The South-eastern region of the state presented clusters with all indicators pointing to acceptable lifestyles, whereas the municipalities of the north-western and far-eastern regions were characterized by values demonstrating precarious living conditions. The high dependency ratio, illiteracy rate, and unemployment rate among elderly people had a negative impact on life expectancy. The evidence confirms that there is an autocorrelation between social determinants and life expectancy, indicating that the worse the social, economic, and health indicators are, the lower the life expectancy. This finding indicates the need to redirect public policies and formulate strategies aimed at reducing social and health inequalities.</p> Andrezza Marques Duque Marcus Valerius Peixoto Shirley V.M.A Lima Marco Aurélio O. Goes Allan D. Santos Karina Conceição Gomes Machado Araújo Marco Antonio P. Nunes ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-12 2018-11-12 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.702 Trend and spatial analysis of prostate cancer mortality in the state of Sergipe, Brazil https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/732 <p>This is an ecological study with exploratory analysis of spatial and temporal data based on mortality data with respect to prostate cancer obtained from the Mortality Information System concerning residents of the state of Sergipe, Brazil between 2000 and 2015. The analysis of temporal trends was performed using the Joinpoint Regression Program through Poisson regression. Spatial analysis was performed using the empirical Bayesian model, Kernel analysis, Global Moran and Local indices. There were 1,986 deaths due to prostate cancer, most of which occurring after 60 years of age. An increasing, non-constant but significant trend in mortality rates was noted. The kernel density estimator showed hotspot densities of the highest rates of prostate cancer mortality in the north-eastern and central regions of the state. High-risk clusters were identified for prostate cancer mortality (I = 0.55, P&lt;0.01). There was an increase in prostate cancer mortality rates and a heterogeneous geographic distribution of risk areas, with high-risk priority areas identified in certain regions of the state. These priority areas include the municipalities located in the Northeast (Amparo do São Francisco, Aquidabã, Canhoba, Cedro de São João and Telha), the West (Frei Paulo and Pedra Mole) and the south-western region of the state (Poço Verde and Simão Dias).</p> José Augusto Passos Góes Danilo de Gois Souza Lucas Almeida Andrade Jéssica Cunha Simone Kameo Marco Aurélio O. Góes Andreia Freire de Menezes Marco Antônio P. Nunes Karina Conceiçao Gomes Machado de Araújo Allan D. Santos ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-12 2018-11-12 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.732 Implications from assessing environmental effects on spatio-temporal pattern of schistosomiasis in the Yangtze Basin, China https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/730 <p>Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in the South China, particularly in lake and marshland regions. Modelling the spatio-temporal pattern of schistosomiasis guides disease prevention and control programs and is a research area of growing interest. However, few attempts have been made to evaluate the changing (nonlinear) effects of environmental determinants on schistosomiasis. In this context, a hierarchical spatiotemporal model was applied to evaluate how environmental determinants affect the changing trend of schistosomiasis in Anhui Province, China, based on annual parasitological and environmental data for the period 1997-2010. Results showed that – compared to changing effect – environmental factors had a constant (linear) effect on schistosomiasis. The disease was also found to fluctuate over time, which was due to the two latest national schistosomiasis control programs. In addition to statistical benefits of this approach, our analysis implied that climate change might not contribute to variation of schistosomiasis; rather, prevention activities affect schistosomiasis when the disease prevalence remains at a low level. Finally, the analytical method proposed in our study provides a template for modelling the spatio-temporal pattern of a disease whose transmission is largely determined by environmental determinants.</p> Fenghua Gao Michael P. Ward Yan Wang Zhijie Zhang Yi Hu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-12 2018-11-12 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.730 SeaGIS Abruzzo: A publicly available atlas of marine uses and natural resources in the Adriatic Sea Region https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/705 <p>In the Adriatic Sea, the European Union supported a cross-border cooperation research program, during which digital spatial data on shellfish production and relaying areas, regulated conditions on fishing activities, protected areas and restocking structures, administrative boundaries and sea bottom characteristics, were collated from digital repositories in various institutions and paper documents. A web-based geographical information system was developed to share data of the sea facing the Abruzzi region and to explore the spatial distribution of marine resources and maritime activities, thus focussing and facilitating fisheries management and providing a potential support to the regional planning of resource exploitation.</p> Carla Ippoliti Alessio Di Lorenzo Riccardo Caprioli Sandro Pelini Annamaria Conte Fernando D'Anselmo Barbara Alessandrini Susanna Tora Carla Giansante ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-12 2018-11-12 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.705 Dispersal of harmful fruit fly pests by international trade and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay to prevent their introduction https://www.geospatialhealth.net/index.php/gh/article/view/726 <p>Global trade of plant products represents one of the major driving forces for the spread of invasive insect pests. This visualization illustrates the problem of unintended dispersal of economically harmful fruit fly pests using geospatial maps based on interception data from the Swiss import control process. Furthermore, it reports the development of a molecular diagnostic assay for rapid identification of these pests at points of entry such as sea- and airports as a prevention measure. The assay reliably differentiates between target and non-target species within one hour and has been successfully evaluated for on-site use at a Swiss point of entry.</p> Simon Blaser Cornelia Heusser Hanspeter Diem Andreas von Felten Morgan Gueuning Michael Andreou Neil Boonham Jennifer Tomlinson Pie Müller Jürg Utzinger Jürg E. Frey Beatrice Frey Andreas Bühlmann ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-12 2018-11-12 13 2 10.4081/gh.2018.726