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Health risk assessment along the wastewater and faecal sludge management and reuse chain of Kampala, Uganda: a visualization

Samuel Fuhrimann, Mirko S. Winkler, Pierre H.H. Schneeberger, Charles B. Niwagaba, Joseph Buwule, Mohammed Babu, Kate Medlicott, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé
  • Samuel Fuhrimann
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
  • Mirko S. Winkler
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
  • Pierre H.H. Schneeberger
    Department of Epidemiology and Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel; University of Basel, Basel; Molecular Diagnostics, Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil ACW, Wädenswil; Department of Virology, Spiez Laboratory, Federal Office for Civil Protection, Spiez, Switzerland
  • Charles B. Niwagaba
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
  • Joseph Buwule
    Landmark Media Consultancy LTD, Kampala, Uganda
  • Mohammed Babu
    Department of Research and Development, National Water and Sewerage Corporation, Kampala, Uganda
  • Kate Medlicott
    Department of Public Health and Environment, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
  • Jürg Utzinger
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel; University of Basel, Basel,
  • Guéladio Cissé
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel; University of Basel, Basel, | gueladio.cisse@unibas.ch

Abstract

Reuse of wastewater in agriculture is a common feature in the developing world. While this strategy might con- tribute to the livelihood of farming communities, there are health risks associated with the management and reuse of wastewater and faecal sludge. We visualise here an assessment of health risks along the major wastewater channel in Kampala, Uganda. The visualization brings to bear the context of wastewater reuse activities in the Nakivubo wetlands and emphasises interconnections to disease transmission pathways. The contextual features are complemented with findings from environmental sampling and a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in selected exposure groups. Our documentation can serve as a case study for a step-by-step implementation of risk assessment and management as described in the World Health Organization’s 2006 guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, greywater and excreta in light of the forthcoming san- itation safety planning approach.

Keywords

wastewater reuse, faecal sludge, sanitation safety planning, health risk assessment, visualization, Uganda.

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Submitted: 2014-12-09 12:04:53
Published: 2014-11-01 00:00:00
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Copyright (c) 2014 Samuel Fuhrimann, Mirko S. Winkler, Pierre H.H. Schneeberger, Charles B. Niwagaba, Joseph Buwule, Mohammed Babu, Kate Medlicott, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé

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