Spatial patterns of intestinal parasite infections among children and adolescents in some indigenous communities in Argentina

Submitted: 27 February 2024
Accepted: 1 May 2024
Published: 28 May 2024
Abstract Views: 1509
PDF: 113
HTML: 2
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Authors

Argentina has a heterogeneous prevalence of infections by intestinal parasites (IPs), with the north in the endemic area, especially for soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). We analyzed the spatial patterns of these infections in the city of Tartagal, Salta province, by an observational, correlational, and cross-sectional study in children and adolescents aged 1 to 15 years from native communities. One fecal sample per individual was collected to detect IPs using various diagnostic techniques: Telemann sedimentation, Baermann culture, and Kato-Katz. Moran’s global and local indices were applied together with SaTScan to assess the spatial distribution, with a focus on cluster detection. The extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) machine-learning model was used to predict the presence of IPs and their transmission pathways. Based on the analysis of 572 fecal samples, a prevalence of 78.3% was found. The most frequent parasite was Giardia lamblia (30.9%). High- and low-risk clusters were observed for most species, distributed in an east-west direction and polarized in two large foci, one near the city of Tartagal and the other in the km 6 community. Spatial XGBoost models were obtained based on distances with a minimum median accuracy of 0.69. Different spatial patterns reflecting the mechanisms of transmission were noted. The distribution of the majority of the parasites studied was aligned in a westerly direction close to the city, but the STH presence was higher in the km 6 community, toward the east. The purely spatial analysis provides a different and complementary overview for the detection of vulnerable hotspots and strategic intervention. Machine-learning models based on spatial variables explain a large percentage of the variability of the IPs.

Dimensions

Altmetric

PlumX Metrics

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Citations

Alfonso-Durruty MP, Valeggia CR, 2018. Talla, peso e índice de masa corporal en niños y niñas wichí de Formosa, Argentina. Arch Argent Pediatr 116:359-64. [Article in English, Spanish]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5546/aap.2018.359
Álvarez Di Fino EM, 2020. Aplicación de tecnologías geoespaciales para el análisis de la seguridad alimentaria y nutricional en la ciudad de Córdoba. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/11086/17133. [Article in Spanish].
Álvarez Di Fino EM, Scavuzzo CM, Campero MN, Scavuzzo CM, Defagó MD, 2022. Explorando el uso de herramientas de sensores remotos y tecnologías geoespaciales aplicadas al problema multidimensional de la seguridad alimentaria. Uniciencia 36:1-15. [Article in Spanish]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15359/ru.36-1.48
Anegagrie M, Lanfri S, Aramendia AA, Scavuzzo CM, Herrador Z, Benito A, Periago MV, 2021. Environmental characteristics around the household and their association with hookworm infection in rural communities from Bahir Dar, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 15:e0009466. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009466
Assaré RK, Lai YS, Yapi A, Tian-Bi YNT, Ouattara M, Yao PK, Knopp S, Vounatsou P, Utzinger J, N’Goran EK, 2015. The spatial distribution of Schistosoma mansoni infection in four regions of western Côte d’Ivoire. Geospat Health 10:345. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4081/gh.2015.345
Ault SK, Catalá Pascual L, Grados-Zavala ME, Gonzálvez García G, Castellanos LG, 2014. El camino a la eliminación: un panorama de las enfermedades infecciosas desatendidas en América Latina y el Caribe. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Pública 31:319-25. [Article in Spanish]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17843/rpmesp.2014.312.53
Azamathulla HM, Ab Ghani A, Fei SY, 2012. ANFIS-based approach for predicting sediment transport in clean sewer. Appl Soft Comput J 12:1227-30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2011.12.003
Bates DW, Saria S, Ohno-Machado L, Shah A, Escobar G, 2014. Big data in health care: using analytics to identify and manage high-risk and high-cost patients. Health Aff 33:1123-31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2014.0041
Brindha J, Balamurali MM, Chanda K, 2021. An overview on the therapeutics of neglected infectious diseases—Leishmaniasis and Chagas diseases. Front Chem 9:622286. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.622286
Brown ME, Lary DJ, Vrieling A, Stathakis D, Mussa H, 2008. Neural networks as a tool for constructing continuous NDVI time series from AVHRR and MODIS. Int J Remote Sens 29:7141-58. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01431160802238435
Candela E, Goizueta C, Sandon L, Muñoz-Antoli C, Periago MV. The relationship between soil-transmitted helminth infections and environmental factors in Puerto Iguazú, Argentina: cross-sectional study. JMIR Public Health Surveill 2023;9:e41568. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2196/41568
Celemín JP, Mikkelsen C. Velázquez G, 2015. La calidad de vida desde una perspectiva geográfica: Integración de indicadores objetivos y subjetivos. Rev Univ Geogr 24:63-84.
Celemín JP, Velázquez GA, 2017. Spatial analysis of the relationship between a life quality index, hdi and poverty in the province of Buenos Aires and the autonomous city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Soc Indic Res 134: 1-21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-017-1777-z
Cociancic P, 2019. Evaluación del riesgo de infecciones parasitarias intestinales en poblaciones infanto-juveniles de Argentina: el impacto de los factores ambientales y socio-económicos en su distribución geográfica. Available from: https://ri.conicet.gov.ar/handle/11336/83720. [Thesis in Spanish].
Cociancic P, Torrusio SE, Garraza M, Zonta ML, Navone GT, 2021. Intestinal parasites in child and youth populations of Argentina: Environmental factors determining geographic distribution. Rev Argent Microbiol 53:225-32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ram.2020.11.004
Cociancic P, Torrusio SE, Zonta ML, Navone GT, 2019. Sistemas de información geográfica (SIG) y sensores remotos aplicados a la epidemiología de las parasitosis intestinales en Argentina. Rev Argent Parasitol 44. [Material in Spanish].
Collins GS, Reitsma JB, Altman DG, Moons KGM, 2015. Transparent reporting of a multivariable prediction model for individual prognosis or diagnosis (TRIPOD): the TRIPOD statement. BMJ 350:g7594. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g7594
Cuenca-León K, Sarmiento-Ordóñez J, Blandín-Lituma P, Pacheco-Quito EM, 2021. Prevalencia de parasitosis intestinal en la población infantil de una zona rural del Ecuador. Bol Malariol Salud Ambient 61:596-602. [Article in Spanish]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.52808/bmsa.7e5.614.006
Del Popolo F, Jaspers D, Cepal N, 2014. Los pueblos indígenas en América Latina. Avances en el último decenio y retos pendientes para la garantía de sus derechos. CEPAL. Available from: https://www.sidalc.net/search/Record/dig-cepal-11362-37050/Description
De Bourmont S, Olmedo S, Rodríguez P, Valeggia C, 2020. Therapeutic itineraries of Qom mothers in a peri-urban community of Formosa. Arch Argent Pediatr 118:240-4. [Article in English, Spanish]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5546/aap.2020.eng.240
Diez Roux AV, 2015. Health in cities: is a systems approach needed?. Cad Saude Publica 31:9-13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-311XDE01S115
Dueñas AS, Gobel ND, Mota IFM, 2021. Aspectos relevantes de las enfermedades infecciosas desatendidas. Panor Cuba Salud 16:127-34. [Aricle in Spanish].
Echagüe G, Sosa L, Díaz V, Ruiz I, Rivas L, Granado D, Funes P, Zenteno J, Pistilli N, Ramírez M, 2015. Enteroparasitosis en niños bajo 5 años de edad, indígenas y no indígenas, de comunidades rurales del Paraguay. Rev Chil Infectol 32:649-657. [Article in Spanish]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4067/S0716-10182015000700006
Engels D, Zhou XN, 2020. Neglected tropical diseases: an effective global response to local poverty-related disease priorities. Infect Dis Poverty 9:10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40249-020-0630-9
Esri, 2023a. Spatial autocorrelation (global Moran’s I) (spatial statistics). Available from: https://pro.arcgis.com/en/pro-app/latest/tool-reference/spatial-statistics/spatial-autocorrelation.htm.
Esri, 2023b. Optimized outlier analysis (spatial statistics). Available from: https://pro.arcgis.com/en/pro-app/latest/tool-reference/spatial-statistics/optimizedoutlieranalysis.htm.
Esteban Mendoza MV, Arcila Quiceno VH, Morchón García R, 2020. Determinación de la seroprevalencia de Dirofilaria immitis en humanos del Área Metropolitana de Bucaramanga. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12494/18004. [Material in Spanish].
Gabrie JA, Rueda MM, Canales M, Sánchez A, 2012. Utilidad del método Kato-Katz para diagnóstico de Uncinariasis: experiencia en una zona rural de Honduras, 2011. Rev Med Hondur 80:3. [Article in Spanish].
Gamboa MI, Giambelluca LA, Navone GT, 2014. Distribución espacial de las parasitosis intestinales en la ciudad de La Plata, Argentina. Medicina (B Aires) 74:363-70. [Article in Spanish].
Gebreyes WA, Dupouy-Camet J, Newport MJ, Oliveira CJ, Schlesinger LS, Saif YM, King LJ, 2014. The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8:e3257. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003257
Han BA, Schmidt JP, Bowden SE, Drake JM, 2015. Rodent reservoirs of future zoonotic diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112:7039-44. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1501598112
Hoyos CL, Cajal SP, Juárez M, Acosta NR, Krolewiecki AJ, Torrejón I, Gil JF, 2011. Clustering temporal de incidencia de la Leishmaniasis Tegumentaria Americana en el año 2009 y potencial exposición a Leishmania spp. en personas sin manifestaciones clínicas en la Localidad de Hipólito Yrigoyen. Universidad Nacional de Salta. Available from: http://eprints.natura.unsa.edu.ar/id/eprint/54. [Material in Spanish].
Iomini PA, Parodi JB, Farina JM, Saldarriaga C, Liblik K, Mendoza I, Sosa Liprandi A, Martínez-Sellés M, Burgos LM, Baranchuk A, 2021. Enfermedades tropicales desatendidas y su impacto sobre la salud cardiovascular (The NET-heart project). Medicina (B. Aires) 81:808-16. [Article in Spanish].
Juárez MM, Rajala VB, 2013. Parasitosis intestinales en Argentina: principales agentes causales encontrados en la población y en el ambiente. Rev Argent Microbiol 45:191-204. [Article in Spanish]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0325-7541(13)70024-5
Kulldorff M, 1997. A spatial scan statistic. Commun Stat Theory Methods 26:1481-96. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03610929708831995
Lary DJ, Alavi AH, Gandomi AH, Walker AL, 2016. Machine learning in geosciences and remote sensing. Geosci Front 7:3-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsf.2015.07.003
Longhi F, Cordero ML, Cesani MF, 2022. Malnutrición infantil en Río Chico (Tucumán, Argentina). Evolución y manifestaciones actuales en el contexto de la transición nutricional. Rev Univ Geogr 31:1-3. [Article in Spanish].
Lundberg SM, Lee S, 2017. A unified approach to interpreting model predictions. Available from: https://proceedings.neurips.cc/paper/2017/hash/8a20a8621978632d76c43dfd28b67767-Abstract.html.
Menghi CI, Iuvaro FR, Dellacasa MA, Gatta CL, 2007. Investigación de parásitos intestinales en una comunidad aborigen de la provincia de Salta. Medicina (B. Aires) 67:705-8. [Article in Spanish].
Ministerio de Salud y Ambiente de la Nación, 2004. Atención Primaria de la Salud. Boletín PROAPS-Available from: https://bancos.salud.gob.ar/sites/default/files/2020-06/boletin-remediar-14.pdf
Müller I, Gall S, Beyleveld L, Gerber M, Pühse U, Du Randt R, Utzinger J, 2017. Shrinking risk profiles after deworming of children in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, with special reference to Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. Geospat Health 12:601. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4081/gh.2017.601
Rivero MR, De Angelo C, Feliziani C, Liang S, Tiranti K, Salas MM, Salomon OD, 2022. Enterobiasis and its risk factors in urban, rural and indigenous children of subtropical Argentina. Parasitology 149:396-406. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182021001955
Romero-Ramírez SC, 2022. Caracterización epidemiológica de la parasitosis intestinal. Rev Arbitr Interdiscip Cienc Salud Salud Vida 6:35-43. [Article in Spanish]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.35381/s.v.v6i11.1669
Roski J, Bo-Linn GW, Andrews TA, 2014. Creating value in health care through big data: opportunities and policy implications. Health Aff 33:1115-22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2014.0147
Scavuzzo CM, Scavuzzo JM, Campero MN, Anegagrie M, Aramendia AA, Benito A, Periago V, 2022. Feature importance: opening a soil-transmitted helminth machine learning model via SHAP. Infect Dis Model 7:262-76. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idm.2022.01.004
Stelling J, Yih WK, Galas M, Kulldorff M, Pichel M, Terragno R, Platt R, 2010. Automated use of WHONET and SaTScan to detect outbreaks of Shigella spp. using antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Epidemiol Infect 138:873-83. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268809990884
Tapia-Veloz E, Gozalbo M, Guillén M, Dashti A, Bailo B, Köster PC, Santín M, Carmena D, Trelis M, 2023. Prevalence and associated risk factors of intestinal parasites among schoolchildren in Ecuador, with emphasis on the molecular diversity of Giardia duodenalis, Blastocystis sp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 17:e0011339. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0011339
Taranto NJ, Cajal SP, De Marzi MC, Fernandez MM, Frank FM, Bru AM, Minvielle MC, Basualdo JA, Malchiodi EL, 2003. Clinical status and parasitic infection in a Wichi Aboriginal community in Salta, Argentina. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97:554-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0035-9203(03)80026-3
Weatherhead EC, Reinsel GC, Tiao GC, Meng X-L, Choi D, Cheang W-K, Keller T, DeLuisi J, Wuebbles DJ, Kerr JB, Miller AJ, Oltmans SJ, Frederick JE, 1998. Factors affecting the detection of trends: Statistical considerations and applications to environmental data. J Geophys Res Atmos 103:17149-61. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/98JD00995
Wetchayont P, Waiyasusri K, 2021. Using Moran’s I for detection and monitoring of the Covid-19 spreading stage in Thailand during the third wave of the pandemic. Geogr Environ Sustain 14:155-67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24057/2071-9388-2021-090
WHO, 2010. Working to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases: first WHO report on neglected tropical diseases. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/44440. Accessed on: 20/11/2022.
WHO, 2021. Poner fin a la desatención para alcanzar los objetivos de desarrollo sostenible: hoja de ruta sobre enfermedades tropicales desatendidas 2021-2030. World Health Organization. Available from: https://www.who.int/es/publications/i/item/9789240010352. Accessed on: 20/11/2022. [Material in Spanish].
WHO, 2023. Soil-transmitted helminth infections. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/soil-transmitted-helminth-infections. Accessed on: 20/11/2022.
Wiens J, Shenoy ES, 2018. Machine learning for healthcare: on the verge of a major shift in healthcare epidemiology. Clin Infect Dis 66:149-53. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix731
Zonta ML, Navone GT, Oyhenart EE, 2007. Parasitosis intestinales en niños de edad preescolar y escolar: situación actual en poblaciones urbanas, periurbanas y rurales en Brandsen, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Parasitol Latinoam 62:54-60. [Article in Spanish]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4067/S0717-77122007000100009
Zonta ML, Cociancic P, Oyhenart EE, Navone GT, 2020. Intestinal parasitosis, undernutrition and socio-environmental factors in schoolchildren from Clorinda Formosa, Argentina. Rev Salud Pública 21:224-31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15446/rsap.v21n2.73692

How to Cite

Scavuzzo, C. M., Campero, M. N., Maidana, R. E., Oberto, M. G., Periago, M. V., & Porcasi, X. (2024). Spatial patterns of intestinal parasite infections among children and adolescents in some indigenous communities in Argentina. Geospatial Health, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.4081/gh.2024.1279