Ecological study and risk mapping of leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil based on a geographical information systems approach

  • Alba Valéria Machado da Silva Laboratório de Bioquímica de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
  • Monica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra Magalhães Laboratório de Geoprocessamento, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
  • Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil Laboratório de Bioquímica e Fisiologia de Insetos, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
  • João Carlos Araujo Carreira | carreira@ioc.fiocruz.br Laboratório INERU, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Abstract

Visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease highly influenced by eco-epidemiological factors. Geographical information systems (GIS) have proved to be a suitable approach for the analysis of environmental components that affect the spatial distribution of diseases. Exploiting this methodology, a model was developed for the mapping of the distribution and incidence of canine leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil. Local variations were observed with respect to infection incidence and distribution of serological titers, i.e. high titers were noted close to areas with preserved vegetation, while low titers were more frequent in areas where people kept chickens. Based on these results, we conclude that the environment plays an important role in generating relatively protected areas within larger endemic regions, but that it can also contribute to the creation of hotspots with clusters of comparatively high serological titers indicating a high level of transmission compared with neighbouring areas.

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Published
2011-11-01
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Original Articles
Keywords:
visceral leishmaniasis, dogs, geographical information system, hotspots, eco-epidemiology, Brazil.
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How to Cite
Machado da Silva, A. V., de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra Magalhães, M., Peçanha Brazil, R., & Araujo Carreira, J. C. (2011). Ecological study and risk mapping of leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil based on a geographical information systems approach. Geospatial Health, 6(1), 33-40. https://doi.org/10.4081/gh.2011.155