COVID-19 vaccine prioritization based on district classification in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia

Submitted: 25 April 2021
Accepted: 5 September 2021
Published: 14 January 2022
Abstract Views: 2094
PDF: 279
HTML: 30
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.


Due to limited availability, Indonesia's coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination will be done in 4 stages until herd immunity has been reached. Yogyakarta, an education and tourist destination, needs to get a specific, spatial estimation of the exact need for COVID-19 vaccination without delay. This study sheds light on identifying which districts should be prioritized at each vaccination phase. Secondary data collected from provincial, and county-level statistical agencies were quantitatively calculated by the Z-Score method. The results indicate that the first phase of vaccination should prioritize Pengasih and Sentolo districts in Kulon Progo Regency, which have a large number of health workers; the districts of Depok, Banguntapan, Piyungan, Sewon, Wonosari, Gamping, Mlati and Ngaglik should be done in the second phase based on the fact that these districts have many public service officials as well as elderly people; Umbulharjo and Depok districts will be approached in the third phase since they have more vulnerable groups and facilities that may promote COVID- 19 transmission during their daily activities; while the fourth phase should focus on the districts of Banguntapan, Sewon, Kasihan, Gamping, Mlati, Depok, and Ngaglik due to the intensity of COVID-19 clusters discovered there. Overall, vaccination would be given the priority in the districts with the largest number of people in need, i.e., public service officers, elderly people and those likely to be exposed to the coronavirus causing COVID-19.



PlumX Metrics


Download data is not yet available.


Ali MG, Ahmad MO, Husain SN, 2020. Spread of corona virus disease (COVID-19) from an outbreak to pandemic in the year 2020. Asian J Res Infect Dis 3:37-51. DOI:
Alshaabi T, Arnold MV, Minot JR, Adams JL, Dewhurst DR, Reagan AJ, Dodds PS, 2021. How the world’s collective attention is being paid to a pandemic: COVID-19 related n-gram time series for 24 languages on Twitter. PLoS One 16:1-13. DOI:
Arling G, Blaser M, Cailas MD, Canar JR, Cooper B, Hatch JF, Geraci PJ, Osiecki KM, Sambanis A, 2021. A data driven approach for prioritizing COVID-19 vaccinations in the Midwestern United States. Online J Public Health Inform 13:e5. DOI:
Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Bantul, 2020. Kabupaten Bantul Dalam Angka Tahun 2020, BPS Kabupaten Bantul, 63pp.
Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Sleman, 2020. Kabupaten Sleman Dalam Angka Tahun 2020, BPS Kabupaten Sleman, 42pp.
Bathi JR, Das HS, 2016. Vulnerability of coastal communities from storm surge and flood disasters. Int J Environ Res Public Health 13:239. DOI:
BBC Indonesia, 2021. Vaksin: Kelompok Usia 18-59 Tahun Didahulukan, Bagaimana Dengan Lansia? Available from: Accessed: January 29, 2021. [Article in Bahasa].
Brahma B, 2020. Oncologists and COVID-19 in Indonesia: What can we learn and must do?. Indones J Cancer 14:1-2. DOI:
Buckner JH, Chowell G, Springborn M, 2021. Dynamic prioritization of COVID-19 vaccines when social distancing is limited for essential workers. PNAS USA 118:1-12. DOI:
Butt AA, Kartha AB, Masoodi NA, Azad AM, Asaad NA, Alhomsi MU, Saleh HAH, Bertollini R, Abou-Samra AB, 2020. Hospital admission rates length of stay and in-hospital mortality for common acute care conditions in COVID-19 vs. pre-COVID-19 era. Public Health [Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2020.09.010. DOI:
CDC, 2020. COVID-19 vaccination program interim playbook for jurisdiction operations, United States America. Available from: Accessed: September 4, 2021.
Chen J, Hoops S, Marathe A, Mortveit H, Lewis B, Venatraman S, Haddadan A, Bhattacharya P, Adiga A, Vullikanti A, Wilson ML, Ehrlich G, Fenster M, Eubank S, Barret C, Marthe M, 2021. Prioritizing allocation of COVID-19 vaccines based on social contacts increases vaccination effectiveness. MedRxiv preprint, doi:10.1101/2021.02.04.21251012. DOI:
Di Domenico L, Pullano G, Sabbatini CE, Boëlle PY, Colizza V, 2020. Impact of lockdown on COVID-19 epidemic in Île-de-France and possible exit strategies. BMC Med 18:1-13. DOI:
Devi MK, Gorman Y, Hidayati S, 2020. Spatial transformation in urban periphery: the case of Yogyakarta. The 5th PlanoCosmo International Conference, IOP Publishing, Bandung, Indonesia, pp. 1-11. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/592/1/012022. DOI:
Dewantara JR, 2018. Wow....Tahun Depan, Gaji Guru di Gunungkidul Bakal Naik Tujuh Kali Lipat. Available from Harian Jogja: Accessed: January 30, 2021. [Article in Bahasa].
Djalante R, Lassa J, Setiamarga D, Sudjatma A, Indrawan M, Haryanto B, Warsilah H, 2020. Review and analysis of current responses to COVID-19 in Indonesia: period of January to March 2020. Prog Disaster Sci 6:100091. DOI:
Edmunds W, 2020. Finding a path to reopen schools during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet Child Adolesc Health 4:796-7. DOI:
Geraghty E, 2020. How GIS can help leaders achieve equitable, speedy vaccine distribution. ESRI blog 24 Sept. Available from:
Giesen C, Diez-Izquierdo L, Saa-Requejo CM, Lopez-Carrillo I, Lopez-Vilela CA, Seco-Martinez A, Prieto MTR, Malmierca, E, Garcia-Fernandez C, 2021. Epidemiological characteristics of the COVID-19 outbreak in a secondary hospital in Spain. Am J Infect Control 49:143-50. DOI:
Ginting, NS, 2020. Penanganan 41 Titik Blank Spot di Gunungkidul akan Melibatkan Pemerintah Pusat dan Daerah. Available from Tribun Jogja:
Glauser W, 2020. Proposed protocol to keep COVID-19 out of hospitals. CMAJ News 192:E264-E265. DOI:
Gostin LO, Salmon D, Larson H, 2021. Mandating COVID-19 vaccines. JAMA 325:532-3. DOI:
Guo H, Zhou Y, Liu X, Tan J, 2020. The impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on the utilization of emergency dental services. J Dent Sci 15:564-7. DOI:
Gromis A, Liu KY, 2020. The emergence of spatial clustering in medical vaccine exemptions following California Senate Bill 277, 2015-2018. Am J Public Health 110:1084-91. DOI:
Hamidi S, Sabouri S, Ewing R, 2020. Does density aggravate the COVID-19 pandemic? early findings and lessons for planners. J Am Plann Assoc 86:495-509. DOI:
Harapan H, Wagner AL, Yufika A, Winardi W, Anwar S, Gan AK, Mudatsir M, 2020. Acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine in Southeast Asia: a cross-sectional study in Indonesia. Public Health Front 8:381. DOI:
Ifdil I, Fadli RP, Suranata K, Zola N, Ardi Z, 2020. Online mental health services in Indonesia during the COVID-19 outbreak. Asian J Psychiatr 51:102153. DOI:
Indonesia Ministry of Health, 2021a. Decree of the Director-General of Disease Control and Prevention of the Ministry of Health Number HK.02.02/4/1/2021 tentang in terms of Technical Guideline on Vaccination to Control COVID-19 Pandemic (COVID-19).
Indonesia Ministry of Health, 2021b. Decree of the Ministry of Health Number HK.01.07/MENKES/4638/2021 in terms of Technical Guideline on Vaccination to Control COVID-19 Pandemic (COVID-19).
Indonesia Mininstry of Health, 2021c. Vaksinasi COVID-19 berdasarkan Provinsi dan Kabupaten/Kota. Available from Kementerian Kesehatan: Accessed: September 4, 2021 [Website in Bahasa].
Jung, H, Albarracin D, 2021. Concerns for others increase the likelihood of vaccination against influenza and COVID-19 more in sparsely rather than densely populated areas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 118:e2007538118. DOI:
Katadata, 2020. Jateng dan Yogya Termasuk 5 Provinsi Kasus Corona & Kematian Tertinggi’. Available from: Acessed: January 30, 2021. [Article in Bahasa].
Krzysztofowicz S, 2021. The use of GIS technology to optimize COVID-19 vaccine distribution: a case study of the city of Warsaw, Poland. Int J Environ Res Public Health 18:1-22. DOI:
Kuswantoro UA, Pramono RWD, 2020. Peran kota Wonosari terhadap perkembangan kabupaten Gunungkidul. Jurnal Penataan Ruang 15:23-9. DOI:
Legates R, Hudalah D, 2014. Peri-Urban Planning for Developing East Asia: Learning from Chengdu, China and Yogyakarta/Kartamantul, Indonesia. J Urban Aff 36:334-53. DOI:
Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, Feng Z, 2020. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. NEJM 382:1199-207.
Mirza FN, Malik AA, Couzens C, Omer SB, 2020. Influenza-negative influenza-like illness (fnILI) Z-score as a proxy for incidence and mortality of COVID-19. J Infect 81:793-6. DOI:
Mirzaee S, Jalalinejad R, George B, 2021. País de Origem, Vacina COVID-19 e o Futuro Das Viagens: um Estudo Preliminar no Irã. ABET 11:1-6.
Mosser JF, Gagne-Maynard W, Rao PC, Osgood-Zimmerman A, Fullman N, Graetz N, Burstein R, Updike RL, Liu PY, Ray SE, Earl L, Deshpande A, Casey DC, Dwyer-Lindgren L, Cromwell EA, Pigott DM, Shearer FM, Larson HJ, Weiss DJ, Bhatt S, Gething PW, Murray CJL, Lim SS, Reiner RC Jr, Hay SI, 2019. Mapping diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine coverage in Africa, 2000–2016: a spatial and temporal modelling study. Lancet 393:1843-55. DOI:
Naubedum C, Obuegbe A, Nwafor H, 2021. Assessment of schools reopening after. J Stud Int Educ 3:86-91. DOI:
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2020. Framework for equitable allocation of COVID-19 vaccine. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA. doi:10.17226/25917. Accessed: January 30, 2021. [Article in Bahasa]. DOI:
Pacheco FC, França GV, Elidio GA, Domingues CM, de Oliveira C, Guilhem DB, 2019. Trends and spatial distribution of MMR vaccine coverage in Brazil during 2007-2017. Vaccine 37:2651-5. DOI:
Pennycook G, McPhetres J, Zhang Y, Lu JG, Rand, DG, 2020. Fighting COVID-19 misinformation on social media: Experimental evidence for a scalable accuracy-nudge intervention. Psychol Sci 31:770-80. [Article in Indonesian]. DOI:
Prasetya E, 2021. Pemkab Gunung Kidul Prioritaskan Tenaga Pendidik Dapat Vaksin COVID Tahap Dua. Available from Merdeka Acessed: January 20, 2021. [Article in Bahasa].
Putra AK, Muta’ali L, 2014. Variasi Perkembangan Ekonomi Wilayah di Perkotaan Yogyakarta. Jurnal Bumi Indonesia 3(4). Available from: Accessed: January 30, 2021. [Article in Bahasa]. DOI:
Regional Government of The Yogyakarta Province, 2021. Yogyakarta Tanggap COVID-19. Available from: Accessed: January 29, 2021. [Website in Bahasa].
Sajed AN, Amgain K, 2020. Corona virus disease (COVID-19) outbreak and the strategy for prevention. Europasian J Med Sci (EJMS) 2:1-3. DOI:
Setiadi, A. 2016. Studi Dampak Rencana Pembangunan Bandara dan Industri Baja di Kulon Progo Terhadap Kawasan Perkotaan Yogyakarta. Konferensi Nasional Teknik Sipil 10:591-598. Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta, ISBN: 978-602-60286-0-0. Available from: Accessed: September 4, 2021 [Article in Bahasa].
Setiati S, Azwar MK, 2020. COVID-19 and Indonesia. Acta Med Indones 52:84-9.
Sharifi A, Khavarian-Gamsir A, 2020. The COVID-19 pandemic: Impacts on cities and major lessons for urban planning, design, and management. Sci Total Environ 1-14. DOI:
Shereen MA, Khan S, Kazmi A, Bashir N, Siddique R, 2020. COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses. J Adv Res 24:91-8. DOI:
Spinelli A, Pellino G, 2020. COVID-19 pandemic: perspectives on an unfolding crisis. Br J Surg 107:785-7. DOI:
Stahel PF, 2020. How to risk-stratify elective surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic? Patient Saf Surg 14:2-4. DOI:
Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE), 2020. Session 03: Roadmap for prioritizing population groups for vaccines against COVID-19. SAGE October 2020 Meeting, pp. 7-11. Available from WHO: Accessed: January 25, 2020.
Thompson M, Wood R, 1993. The international harmonised protocol for the proficiency testing of (chemical) analytical laboratories IUPAC/ISO/AOAC. J Pure Appl Chem 65:2123-44. DOI:
Trevelyan B, Smallman-Raynor M, Cliff AD, 2005. The spatial dynamics of poliomyelitis in the United States: From epidemic emergence to vaccine-induced retreat, 1910-1971’. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 95:269-93. DOI:
Vidal CG, Sanjuan G, Garcia EM, Martinez JA, Soriano A, 2020. Incidence of co-infections and super infections in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study. CMI [Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2020.07.041. DOI:
Wibowo K, 2020. Guru Honorer di Gunungkidul Kunjungi Rumah Siswa untuk Belajar Bersama. Available from
WHO, 2021. WHO lists additional COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use and issues interim policy recommendations. Available from:
Wu J, Riley S, Leung G, 2007. Spatial considerations for the allocation of pre-pandemic influenza vaccination in the United States. Proc R Soc Lond [Bio] 274:2811-7. DOI:
Yu Z, Wang G, Goldman E, Zangerl B, Xie N, Cao Y, Lotfi A, 2021. COVID-19 vaccine: Call for employees in international transportation industries and international travelers as the first priority in global distribution. Open Med J 16:134-8. DOI:
Zhou S, Zhou S, Zheng Z, Lu J, 2021. Optimizing spatial allocation of COVIDâ€19 vaccine by agentâ€based spatiotemporal simulations. GeoHealth 5:e2021GH000427 [Epub ahead of print]. DOI:
Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, Tan W, 2020. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med 382:727-33. DOI:

How to Cite

Hanifa, S., Puspitasari, D. ., Ramadhan, C., & Herastuti, K. O. (2022). COVID-19 vaccine prioritization based on district classification in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia. Geospatial Health, 17(s1).

List of Cited By :

Crossref logo