Immunity to poliovirus in Afghanistan: A household sampling method for serological assessment based on geographical information systems

Submitted: 11 May 2022
Accepted: 19 October 2022
Published: 29 November 2022
Abstract Views: 722
PDF: 491
HTML: 23
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Authors

Afghanistan continues to experience challenges affecting polio eradication. Mass polio vaccination campaigns, which aim to protect children under the age of 5, are a key eradication strategy. To date, the polio program in Afghanistan has only employed facility-based seroprevalence surveys, which can be subject to sampling bias. We describe the feasibility in implementing a cross-sectional household poliovirus seroprevalence survey based on geographical information systems (GIS) in three districts. Digital maps with randomly selected predetermined starting points were provided to teams, with a total target of 1,632 households. Teams were instructed to navigate to predetermined starting points and enrol the closest household within 60 m. To assess effectiveness of these methods, we calculated percentages for total households enrolled with valid geocoordinates collected within the designated boundary, and whether the Euclidean distance of households were within 60 m of a predetermined starting point. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) image ratio was conducted to further investigate variability in team performances. The study enrolled a total of 78% of the target sample with 52% of all households within 60 m of a pre-selected point and 79% within the designated cluster boundary. Success varied considerably between the four target areas ranging from 42% enrolment of the target sample in one place to 90% enrolment of the target sample in another. Interviews with the field teams revealed that differences in security status and amount of non-residential land cover were key barriers to higher enrolment rates. Our findings indicate household poliovirus seroprevalence surveys using GIS-based sampling can be effectively implemented in polio endemic countries to capture representative samples. We also proposed ways to achieve higher success rates if these methods are to be used in the future, particularly in areas with concerns of insecurity or spatially dispersed residential units.

Dimensions

Altmetric

PlumX Metrics

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Citations

Abimbola S, Malik AU, Mansoor GF, 2013. The final push for polio eradication: addressing the challenge of violence in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria. PLoS Med 10,e1001529. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001529
CDC, 2019. Global Immunization. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/polio/what-is-polio/hcp.html [Accessed 1/29/2021 2021].
Chen P, Liu Y, Wang H, Liu G, Lin X, Zhang W, Ji F, Xu Q, Tao Z, Xu A, Schaffner DW, 2020. Environmental Surveillance Complements Case-Based Surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis in Polio Endgame Strategy 2019–2023. Appl Environ Microbiol 86:e00702-20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00702-20
Cousins S, 2021. Polio in Afghanistan: a changing landscape. Lancet 397: 84-85. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00030-1
GPEI, 2019. Polio endgame strategy 2019-2023, eradication, intergration, certification and containment. World Health Organization (WHO).
Hussain I, Mach O, Hamid NA, Bhatti ZS, Moore DD, Oberste MS. Khan S, Khan H, Weldon WC, Sutter RW, Bhutta ZA, Soofi SB. 2018. Seroprevalence of anti-polio antibodies in children from polio high risk area of Afghanistan: A cross sectional survey 2017. Vaccine 36,1921-1924. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.02.055
Initiative, G. P. E. 2010. Global polio eradication initiative, Strategic Plan 2010-2012. World Health Organization
Kalkowska DA, Tebbens RJD, Pallansch MA, Thompson, KM. 2019. Modeling undetected live poliovirus circulation after apparent interruption of transmission: Pakistan and Afghanistan. Risk Anal, 39,402-413. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/risa.13214
Kennedy J, Mckee M, King L. 2015. Islamist insurgency and the war against polio: a cross-national analysis of the political determinants of polio. Global Health, 11,40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12992-015-0123-y
Kuehn B. 2019. Poliovirus type 3 is eradicated. JAMA, 322,2276-2276. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.20068
Martinez M, Akbar IE, Wadood MZ, Shukla H, Jorba J,Ehrhardt D, 2020. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication — Afghanistan, January 2019–July 2020. MMWR - Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 69:1464-1468. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6940a3
Michael CA, Ogbuanu IU, Storms AD, Ohuabunwo CJ, Corkum M, Ashenafi S, Achari P, Biya O, Nguku P, Mahoney F; NSTOP OPV Refusal Study Team, 2014. An assessment of the reasons for oral poliovirus vaccine refusals in northern Nigeria. J Infect Dis 210, S125-30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiu436
Nations, F. O. O. T. U. 2016. The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan: Land Cover Atlas. (https://landportal.org/node/50631).
Mohammad N, Habibzada M. 2020. Polio remains threat in militant-hit areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Voice of America, January 24, 2020.
Norris A, Hachey K, Curtis A, Bourdeaux, M. 2016. Crippling violence: conflict and incident polio in Afghanistan. PLoS One 11,e0149074. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149074
Opare JKL, Odoom JK, Akweongo P, Afari EA, Pappoe M. 2019. Poliovirus antibody levels and lameness among individuals in three regions of Ghana. Human Vacci Immunotherapeut 15,2050-2059. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1637235
Shimabukuro T, Estivariz CF, Gelles RL. 2021. Poliomyelitis [Online]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/index.html [Accessed 8/25/2021 2021].
Verma AA, Jimenez MP, Tangermann RH, Subramanian SV, Razak F. 2018. Insecurity, polio vaccination rates, and polio incidence in northwest Pakistan. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 115,1593-1598. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1711923115
WHO. 2017. Poliomyelitis: Vaccine derived polio [Online]. World Health Organization [Accessed 1/28/2020 2020].
WHO. 2018. Polio Eradication Initiative [Online]. WHO. Available: http://www.emro.who.int/afg/programmes/polio-eradication-initiative.html [Accessed 1/29/2021 2021].
Zha Y, Gao J, Ni SY, 2003. Use of normalized difference built-up index in automatically mapping urban areas from TM imagery. Int J Remote Sens 24,583-594. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01431160304987

How to Cite

Mendes, A., Whiteman, A., Nygren, B. ., Kaplan, B. ., Hussain, I., Soofi, S. ., Martinez, M., & Farag, N. H. (2022). Immunity to poliovirus in Afghanistan: A household sampling method for serological assessment based on geographical information systems. Geospatial Health, 17(2). https://doi.org/10.4081/gh.2022.1107