Spatial heterogeneity in relationship between district patterns of HIV incidence and covariates in Zimbabwe: a multi-scale geographically weighted regression analysis

Submitted: 2 May 2023
Accepted: 28 August 2023
Published: 27 November 2023
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A study was conducted to investigate the district-level patterns of incidence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Zimbabwe in the period 2005-2015 and explore variations in the relationship between covariates and HIV incidence across different districts. Demographic health survey data were analysed using hotspot analysis, spatial autocorrelation, and multi-scale geographically weighted regression (MGWR) techniques. The analysis revealed hotspots of the HIV epidemic in the southern and western regions of Zimbabwe in contrast to the eastern and northern regions. Specific districts in Matabeleland South and Matabeleland North provinces showed clusters of HIV incidence in 2005-2006, 2010-2011 and 2015. Variables studied were multiple sex partners and sexually transmitted infections (STI) condom use and being married. Recommendations include implementing targeted HIV prevention programmes in identified hotspots, prioritising interventions addressing the factors mentioned above as well as enhancing access to HIV testing and treatment services in high-risk areas, strengthening surveillance systems, and conducting further research to tailor interventions based on contextual factors. The study also emphasizes the need for regular monitoring and evaluation at the district level to inform effective responses to the HIV epidemic over time. By addressing the unique challenges and risk factors in different districts, significant progress can be made in reducing HIV transmission and improving health outcomes in Zimbabwe. These findings should be valuable for policymakers in resource allocation and designing evidence-based interventions.

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How to Cite

Birri Makota, R., & Musenge, E. (2023). Spatial heterogeneity in relationship between district patterns of HIV incidence and covariates in Zimbabwe: a multi-scale geographically weighted regression analysis. Geospatial Health, 18(2). https://doi.org/10.4081/gh.2023.1207