An investigation of geographical clusters of leptospirosis during the outbreak in Pangandaran, West Java, Indonesia

Submitted: 6 July 2023
Accepted: 10 September 2023
Published: 5 October 2023
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Leptospirosis is neglected in many tropical developing countries, including Indonesia. Our research on this zoonotic disease aimed to investigate epidemiological features and spatial clustering of recent leptospirosis outbreaks in Pangandaran, West Java. The study analysed data on leptospirosis notifications between September 2022 and May 2023. Global Moran I and local indicator for spatial association (LISA) were applied. Comparative analysis was performed to characterise the identified hotspots of leptospirosis relative to its neighbourhoods. A total of 172 reported leptospirosis in 40 villages from 9 sub-districts in Pangandaran District were analysed. Of these, 132 cases (76.7%) were male. The median age was 49 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 34-59 years). Severe outcomes including renal failure, lung failure, and hepatic necrosis were reported in up to 5% of the cases. A total of 30 patients died, resulting in the case fatality rate (CFR) of 17.4%. Moran’s I analysis showed significant spatial autocorrelation (I=0.293; p=0.002) and LISA results identified 7 High-High clusters (hotspots) in the Southwest, with the total population at risk at 26,184 people. The hotspots had more cases among older individuals (median age: 51, IQR: 36-61 years; p<0.001), more farmers (79%, p=0.001) and more evidence of the presence of rats (p=0.02). A comprehensive One Health intervention should be targeted towards these high-risk areas to control the transmission of leptospirosis. More empirical evidence is needed to understand the role of climate, animals and sociodemographic characteristics on the transmission of leptospirosis in the area studied.



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How to Cite

Widawati, M., Dhewantara, P. W., Anasi, R., Wahono, T., Marina, R., Pertiwi, I. P., Wibowo, A. A., Ruliansyah, A., Riandi, M. U., Widiastuti, D., & Astuti, E. P. (2023). An investigation of geographical clusters of leptospirosis during the outbreak in Pangandaran, West Java, Indonesia. Geospatial Health, 18(2).