Application of geospatial information systems (GIS) for assessment of the distribution of periodontal disease in Makassar City, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

Submitted: 7 September 2023
Accepted: 6 October 2023
Published: 7 November 2023
Abstract Views: 710
PDF: 228
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.


Addressing the presence of periodontal disease requires a high level of expertise to detect the disease as well as effective communication to understand patients’ problems. Based on basic health data from 2018, the prevalence of this problem in Indonesia is approximately 74%. This study examined the distribution of periodontal conditions in March 2021 in Makassar City, the capital of South Sulawesi Province. To determine the distribution of periodontal disease, a questionnaire was used to find out the severity of this issue. A descriptive observational method, used with a cross-sectional design and a web-based geospatial information system (GIS) application linked to ArcGIS, was conducted. The results showed thatout of the 15 districts in Makassar City, the island district of Sangkarranghad had the highest presence of periodontal disease. Three other districts were classified as also belonging to this low category, while 11 other ones exhibited a medium disease incidence score.



PlumX Metrics


Download data is not yet available.


Aremu JB, Pérez CM, Joshipura KJ, 2023. Longitudinal Association between Periodontitis and the Risk of Hypertension. Int J Dent 8:2644623. DOI:
Central Bureau of Statistics of South Sulawesi Province, 2021. South Sulawesi Province in Figures 2021. BPS South Sulawesi Province. 1, 47.
Chen X, Ye W, Zhan JY, et al., 2018. Periodontal Status of Chinese Adolescents: Findings from the 4th National Oral Health Survey. Chin J Dent Res 21:195–203.
Delwel S, Binnekade TT, Perez RSGM, et al., 2018. Oral hygiene and oral health in older people with dementia: a comprehensive review with focus on oral soft tissues. Clin Oral Investig 22:93–108. DOI:
Diab HA, Hamadeh GN, Ayoub F, 2017. Evaluation of periodontal status and treatment needs of institutionalized intellectually disabled individuals in Lebanon. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 7:76–83. DOI:
Geest S De, Laleman I, Teughels W, et al. 2016. Periodontal diseases as a source of halitosis : a review of the evidence and treatment approaches for dentists and dental hygienists. Periodontology 2000 71:213–27. DOI:
Grocock R, Holden B, Robertson C, 2019. The missing piece of the body? Oral health knowledge and confidence of doctors. Br Dental J 226:427–31. DOI:
Hartoyo GME, Nugroho Y, Bhirowo A, Khalil B, 2010. Basic Level Geographic Information System (GIS) Training Module. J Region City Plann 1:67–68.
Indonesian Ministry of Health. 2018. Results of Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) 2018. Jakarta: Indonesian Ministry of Health Research and Development Agency.
Kim HN, Jang YE, Kim CB, Kim NH, 2018. Socioeconomic status and self-reported periodontal symptoms in community-dwelling individuals: data from the Korea Community Health Surveys of 2011 and 2013. Korea: International Dental J 68:411–9. DOI:
Madi M, Tabasum A, Elakel A, et al., 2021. Periodontal risk assessment in a teaching hospital population in Saudi Arabia's Eastern Province. Saudi Arabia: Saudi Dent J. 1-14. DOI:
Makassar City Central Bureau of Statistics, 2021a. Makassar City in Figures 2021. Andriani, editor. Makassar: BPS Makassar City. 17, 33, 42-5.
Makassar City Central Bureau of Statistics, 2021b. Sangkarrang Islands District in Figures 2021. BPS Makassar City. 21-23, 26-27.
Mihaela SS, Gianina I, Liliana P, et al., 2017. Risk Predictors in Periodontal Disease. Rom J Oral Rehabilitation 9:89–96.
Nazir M, 2017. Prevalence of periodontal disease, its association with systemic diseases and prevention. Proc - Int Symmp Inf Process ISIP 2008 Int Pacific Work Web Min Web-Based Appl WMWA 2008. 1:72–80.
Newman M, Takei H, Klokkevold P, Carranza F, 2015. Carranza's Clinical Periodontology. 12th ed. Carranza FA, ed. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier. 1766 p.
Nyorobi JM, Carneiro LC, Kabulwa MN, 2018. Knowledge and Practices on Periodontal Health among Adults, Misungwi, Tanzania. Int J Dentistry 1-7. DOI:
Perry DA, Beemsterboer PL, Essex G, 2014. Periodontology for the Dental Hygienist. 4th ed. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier. 355 p.
Preshaw PM, 2015. Detection and diagnosis of periodontal conditions is possible to prevention. BMC Oral Health 15:S5. DOI:
Rani H, Mohd Dom TN, Mohd Said S, Johari NA. 2020. Self-assessment tool for evaluating periodontal conditions. Makara J Health Res 2020;24.
Romano F, Perotto S, Bianco L, et al. 2020. Self-Perception of Periodontal Health and Associated Factors: A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study. Int J Environmental Research Public Health 17:1-14. DOI:
Setiawan PB, Hartono H, Tandelilin RTC, Nur'aini B, 2020. Mapping and Socioeconomic and Behavioral Risk Factors for Periodontal Disease Incidence in Pundong District, Bantul Regency. J Teknoscience 9:148-158. DOI:
Suratri MAL, Notohartojo IT, 2016. Smoking as a risk factor of periodontal disease. Health Science J Indonesia 7:107-112 DOI:
Susanto A, Carolina D, Amaliya A, et al., 2020. Periodontal health status and treatment needs of the community in Indonesia: A cross sectional study. J Int Oral Health 12:114–9. DOI:
WHO, 2013. Oral Health Surveys Basic methods. 5th ed. France: WHO Library Cataloging-in-Publication Data. 1–137 p.
Yamamoto T, Koyama R, Tamaki N, et al., 2009. Validity of a questionnaire for periodontitis screening of Japanese employees. J Occup Health 51:137-43. DOI:

How to Cite

Husain Akbar, F., & Riyadh, N. A. (2023). Application of geospatial information systems (GIS) for assessment of the distribution of periodontal disease in Makassar City, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Geospatial Health, 18(2).