Spatial associations between chronic kidney disease and socio-economic factors in Thailand

Submitted: 21 October 2023
Accepted: 14 January 2024
Published: 30 January 2024
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a persistent, progressive condition characterized by gradual decline of kidney functions leading to a range of health issues. This research used recent data from the Ministry of Public Health in Thailand and applied spatial regression and local indicators of spatial association (LISA) to examine the spatial associations with night-time light, Internet access and the local number of health personnel per population. Univariate Moran’s I scatter plot for CKD in Thailand’s provinces revealed a significant positive spatial autocorrelation with a value of 0.393. High-High (HH) CKD clusters were found to be predominantly located in the North, with Low-Low (LL) ones in the South. The LISA analysis identified one HH and one LL with regard to Internet access, 15 HH and five LL clusters related to night-time light and eight HH and five LL clusters associated with the number of health personnel in the area. Spatial regression unveiled significant and meaningful connections between various factors and CKD in Thailand. Night-time light displayed a positive association with CKD in both the spatial error model (SEM) and the spatial lag model (SLM), with coefficients of 3.356 and 2.999, respectively. Conversely, Internet access exhibited corresponding negative CKD associations with a SEM coefficient of - 0.035 and a SLM one of -0.039. Similarly, the health staff/population ratio also demonstrated negative associations with SEM and SLM, with coefficients of -0.033 and -0.068, respectively. SEM emerged as the most suitable spatial regression model with 54.8% according to R2. Also, the Akaike information criterion (AIC) test indicated a better performance for this model, resulting in 697.148 and 698.198 for SEM and SLM, respectively. These findings emphasize the complex interconnection between factors contributing to the prevalence of CKD in Thailand and suggest that socioeconomic and health service factors are significant contributing factors. Addressing this issue will necessitate concentrated efforts to enhance access to health services, especially in urban areas experiencing rapid economic growth.

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How to Cite

Sansuk, J., & Sornlorm, K. (2024). Spatial associations between chronic kidney disease and socio-economic factors in Thailand. Geospatial Health, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.4081/gh.2024.1246