Spatial clusters of human and livestock anthrax define high-risk areas requiring intervention in Lao Cai Province, Vietnam 1991-2022

Submitted: 26 November 2023
Accepted: 10 March 2024
Published: 15 April 2024
Abstract Views: 1195
PDF: 204
Supplementary Materials: 16
HTML: 1
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Authors

Anthrax, a widespread zoonosis in low and middle-income countries with low disease awareness and insufficient livestock vaccination coverage, has been known in Lao Cai Province in northern Vietnam for years before its apparent absence in 2009, which requires investigation as this infection is frequently reported from neighbouring provinces and countries. We aimed to describe the seasonal patterns of anthrax (1991-2008), compare livestock anthrax vaccine coverage to disease occurrence (1991- 2022), and delineate the high-risk areas to inform local disease surveillance in the province. We illustrated the seasonal pattern of anthrax and provided a comparison between livestock vaccine coverage and disease occurrence by purely spatial SaTScan (Poisson model, 25% population at risk) to detect spatial clusters of human and livestock anthrax using population derived from zonal statistics routines. The number of cases, crude cumulative incidence, and spatial clusters of human and livestock anthrax were mapped in QGIS. Results indicate peak anthrax incidence from May to October. Buffalo, domestic cattle, and horses accounted for 75% of total animal cases. Horse anthrax was more common in Lao Cai than in its neighbours and often occurred in years with human mortality. Vaccination covered less than 30% of the livestock population. We found an apparent pattern where anthrax was controlled from 1998-2003 with higher vaccine coverage (>20%) and identified spatial clusters of human and livestock anthrax in Muong Khuong, Bao Thang, and Bac Ha districts of Lao Cai. The local public health and veterinary agencies are recommended to revisit the high-risk areas and communicate with neighbouring provinces for a regional approach to anthrax surveillance and control.

Dimensions

Altmetric

PlumX Metrics

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Citations

Aya Pastrana N, Beran D, Somerville C, Heller O, Correia JC, Suggs LS. 2020. The Process of Building the Priority of Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Global Policy Analysis. P PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14:e0008498. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008498
Barro AS, Kracalik IT, Malania L, Tsertsvadze N, Manvelyan J, Imnadze P, Blackburn JK. 2015. Identifying hotspots of human anthrax transmission using three local clustering techniques. Appl Geogr 60:29–36. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2015.02.014
Carlson CJ, Kracalik IT, Ross N, Alexander KA, Hugh-Jones ME, Fegan M, Elkin BT, Epp T, Shury TK, Zhang W, Bagirova M, Getz WM, Blackburn JK. 2019. The global distribution of bacillus anthracis and associated anthrax risk to humans, livestock and wildlife. Nature Microbiology 4:1337–43. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-019-0435-4
Chen WJ, Lai SJ, Yang Y, Liu K, Li XL, Yao HW, Li Y, Zhou H, Wang LP, Mu D, Yin WW, Fang LQ, Yu HJ, Cao WC. 2016. Mapping the distribution of anthrax in mainland China, 2005–2013. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 10:e0004637. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004637
Cong Information of Lao Cai Province. 2023. Proactively prevent, combat and respond to Anthrax. Cong Information of Lao Cai Province, Information page on legal communication. June 26, 2023. Available from: http://pbgdpl.laocai.gov.vn/default.aspx?catname=chi-dao-dieu-hanh&title=chu-dong-phong-chong-ung-pho-benh-nhiet-than&id=1192243
Dang-Xuan S, Nguyen-Viet H, Meeyam T, Fries R, Nguyen-Thanh H, Pham-Duc P, Lam S, Grace D, Unger F. 2016. Food safety perceptions and practices among smallholder pork value chain actors in Hung Yen Province, Vietnam. J Food Protect 79:1490–97. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-15-402
Gaughan AE, Stevens FR, Linard C, Jia P, Tatem AJ. 2013. High Resolution Population Distribution Maps for Southeast Asia in 2010 and 2015. PLOS One 8 (2): e55882. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055882
General Statistics Office of Vietnam. Preliminary results of the 2019 Viet Nam population and housing census. 2020. Available from: https://www.gso.gov.vn/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/Ket-qua-toan-bo-Tong-dieu-tra-dan-so-va-nha-o-2019.pdf
General Statistics Office of Vietnam. Statistical Yearbook of Vietnam 2022. 2023. Avalable from: https://www.gso.gov.vn/wp-content/uploads/2023/06/Sach-Nien-giam-TK-2022-final.pdf
Gideon Informatics Inc., Berger S. 2021. Anthrax: Global Status: 2021 Edition. GIDEON Informatics Inc.
Global Administrative Areas. 2021. GADM Database of Global Administrative Areas, Version 3.6. Global Administrative Areas. 2021. Available from: https://gadm.org/
Hugh-Jones M, Blackburn J. 2009. The ecology of Bacillus Anthracis. Mol Aspects Med 30:356–67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2009.08.003
Kisaakye E, Ario AR, Bainomugisha K, Cossaboom CM, Lowe D, Bulage L, Kadobera D, Sekamatte M, Lubwama B, Tumusiime D, Tusiime P, Downing R, Buule J, Lutwama J, Salzer JS, Matkovic E, Ritter J, Gary J, Zhu BP. 2018. Outbreak of anthrax associated with handling and eating meat from a cow, Uganda, 2018. Emerg Infect Dis 26:2799–806. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2612.191373
Kracalik I, Malania L, Broladze M, Navdarashvili A, Imnadze P, Ryan SJ, Blackburn JK. 2017. Changing Livestock Vaccination Policy Alters the Epidemiology of Human Anthrax, Georgia, 2000–2013. Vaccine 35:6283–89. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.09.081
Kulldorff M. 1997. A spatial scan statistic. Comm Statist 26:1481–96. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03610929708831995
Lao Cai Statistics Office, Lao Cai Province, Vietnam. Lao Cai Statistical Yearbook 2016. 2017.
Lao Cai Statistics Office, Lao Cai Province, Vietnam. Lao Cai Statistical Yearbook 2021. 2022.
Leuangvilay P, Chapman RS, Siriwong W. 2012. Associated environmental factors and past practices regarding to anthrax infection in human in salavan district, Salavan Province, Lao PDR: Case-Control Study. J Health Res 26:335–39.
Li Y, Yin W, Hugh-Jones M, Wang L, Mu D, Ren X, Zeng L, Chen Q, Li W, Wei J, Lai S, Zhou H, Yu H. 2017. Epidemiology of human anthrax in China, 1955−2014. Emerg Infect Dis 23:14–21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2301.150947
Luong T, Be TB, Hoang MD, Hoang TTH, Pham QT, Tran TMH, Ho HD, Long PT, Blackburn JK. 2023. Incidence and spatial distribution of human and livestock anthrax in Cao Bang Province, Vietnam (2004–2020). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 23:306–9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2022.0072
Luong T, Nguyen TT, Trinh VB, Walker MA, Ha Hoang TT, Pham QT, Tran TMH, Pham VK, Nguyen VL, Pham TL, Blackburn JK. 2023. Informing one health anthrax surveillance and vaccination strategy from spatial analysis of anthrax in humans and livestock in Ha Giang Province, Vietnam (1999–2020). Am J Trop Med Hyg 23:492-502. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.22-0384
McPake B, Gilbert K, Vong S, Ros B, Has P, Khuong AT, Phuc PD, Hoang QC, Nguyen DH, Siengsounthone L, Luangphaxay C, Annear P, McKinley J. 2022. Role of Regulatory capacity in the animal and human health systems in driving response to zoonotic disease outbreaks in the mekong region. One Health 14:100369. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2022.100369
Metrailer MC, Hoang TTH, Jiranantasak T, Luong T, Ho LM, Ngoc DB, Pham QT, Pham VK, Hung TTM, Huong VTL, Pham TL, Ponciano JM, Hamerlinck G, Dang DA, Norris MH, Blackburn JK. 2023. Spatial and phylogenetic patterns reveal hidden infection sources of bacillus anthracis in an anthrax outbreak in Son La Province, Vietnam. Infect Gen Evol 114:105496. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2023.105496
Nayak P, Sodha SV, Laserson KF, Padhi AK, Swain BK, Hossain SS, Shrivastava A, Khasnobis P, Venkatesh SR, Patnaik B, Dash KC. 2019. A cutaneous anthrax outbreak in Koraput District of Odisha-India 2015. BMC Public Health 19:470. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6787-0
Nguyen-Viet H, Tuyet-Hanh TT, Unger F, Dang-Xuan S, Grace D. 2017. Food safety in Vietnam: where we are at and what we can learn from international experiences. Infect Dis Poverty 6:83–8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40249-017-0249-7
QGIS Development Team. 2022. “QGIS Geographic Information System.” QGIS Development Team. https://qgis.org/en/site/.
Robinson TP, Wint GR, Conchedda G, Van Boeckel TP, Ercoli V, Palamara E, Cinardi G, D'Aietti L, Hay SI, Gilbert M. 2014. Mapping the global distribution of livestock. PLoS One 9:e96084. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096084
Shaheenur Islam SK, Chakma S, Taslima Akhter AHM, Ibrahim N, Talukder F, Chowdhuary GA. 2018. Investigation of animal anthrax outbreaks in the human–animal interface at risky districts of Bangladesh during 2016–2017. J Adv Vet Anim Res 5:397–404. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5455/javar.2018.e290
Sitali DC, Mumba C, Skjerve E, Mweemba O, Kabonesa C, Mwinyi MO, Nyakarahuka L, Muma JB. 2017. Awareness and attitudes towards anthrax and meat consumption practices among affected communities in zambia: a mixed methods approach. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 11:e0005580. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005580
Ta, TT. 2022. Border markets and livelihood transformation of hmong people at the vietnamese chinese border: a case study of Can Cau cattle market. Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences Studies 22:39–49.
Tan LM, Hung DN, My DT, Walker MA, Ha HTT, Thai PQ, Hung TTM, Blackburn JK. 2022. Spatial Analysis of Human and Livestock Anthrax in Dien Bien Province, Vietnam (2010–2019) and the Significance of Anthrax Vaccination in Livestock. PLOS Neglected Tropical Dis 16:e0010942. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0010942
Tran ND, Tran HN, Thi CHP, and et al. 2015. “The Situation of Communicable Diseases in Ther Northern, Viet Nam, 2000-2014,” JOURNAL 8: 21–30.
Trang DT, Siembieda J, Huong NT, Hung P, Ky VD, Bandyopahyay S, Olowokure B. 2015. Prioritization of zoonotic diseases of public health significance in Vietnam. J Infection Devel Countries 9:1315–22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3855/jidc.6582
Turner S. 2010. Borderlands and border narratives: a longitudinal study of challenges and opportunities for local traders shaped by the Sino-Vietnamese border. J Global History 5:265–87. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1740022810000082
Vietnam - Law No. 03/2007/QH12 on Infectious Diseases Prevention and Control. 2007. 2007. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_isn=84337.
Vietnam - Ministry of Health -Circular number 54/2015/TT-BYT guiding the infectious disease notification and report. 2015. 2015. https://thuvienphapluat.vn/van-ban/The-thao-Y-te/Thong-tu-54-2015-TT-BYT-che-do-thong-tin-bao-cao-va-khai-bao-benh-dich-benh-truyen-nhiem-299842.aspx.
Vuong QH, Pham P, Nguyen MH, Ngo CT, Tran PM, Khuc QV. 2021. Farmers’ livelihood strategies and perceived constraints from poor and non-poor households: a dataset from a field survey in Nghe An, Vietnam. Data Brief 36:106991. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2021.106991
Walker MA, Tan LM, Dang LH, Van Khang P, Ha HTT, Hung TTM, Dung HH, Anh DD, Duong TN, Hadfield T, Thai PQ, Blackburn JK. 2022. Spatiotemporal patterns of anthrax, Vietnam, 1990-2015. Emerg Infect Dis 28:2206–13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2811.212584
WHO. 2008. Anthrax in Humans and Animals. 4th ed. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization. 2006. “The Control of Neglected Zoonotic Diseases: A Route to Poverty Alleviation: Report of a Joint WHO/DFID-AHP Meeting, 20 and 21 September 2005, WHO Headquarters, Geneva, with the Participation of FAO and OIE.” WHO/SDE/FOS/2006.1. Geneva: World Health Organization. https://iris.who.int/handle/10665/43485.
Worldpop. 2022. Population Counts: Unconstrained Individual Countries 2000-2020 UN Adjusted (100m Resolution). Available from: https://www.worldpop.org/geodata/listing?id=69

Supporting Agencies

US Defense Threat Reduction Agency

How to Cite

Luong, T., Tran, M. H., Pham, B. U., Metrailer, M. C., Pham, V. K., Nguyen, H. L. ., Pham, T. L., Tran, T. M. H. ., Pham, Q. T., Hoang, T. T. H., & Blackburn, J. K. (2024). Spatial clusters of human and livestock anthrax define high-risk areas requiring intervention in Lao Cai Province, Vietnam 1991-2022. Geospatial Health, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.4081/gh.2024.1253